Project of Sarawak's Coral Reef

 

There are 28 reefs between Miri and Sibuti area

 

 

Total surface area of the Miri-Sibuti reefs

Reef  Total Surface Area (m2)
New Reef VIII  725,345.000
Beting Niah  177,675.410
Batu Tar Reef  153,080.410
Salam Reef  144,011.203
Siwa Reef  111,300.648
Drop-off  107,004.328
Eve's Garden  100,762.422
VHK Reef  64,506.199
Sunday Reef  46,764.824
Hatano's Reef  32,740.223
Seafan Garden  31,862.924
New Reef V  31,803.754
Anemone Garden  23,508.020
Santak Point  21,660.523
Belais Reef  19,438.871
Seafan D  19,174.729
Batu Batik  18,665.801
New Reef II  16,857.447
Bunut Reef  16,849.301
Tusan Reef  13,284.769
Lakim Reef  12,465.238
New Reef I  10,757.438
Grouper Patch  10,336.062
Tukau B  8,945.922
Azam's Reef  6,907.990
New Reef IV  6,738.432
Berabok Bubble  4,203.177
New Reef III  2,369.954
TOTAL: 28 reefs 1,939,021.02

Note* only New Reef VIII and New Reef III are provided with Interpolated map. Other reefs can be archive based upon request to ippcs@streamyx.com or daud@fri.gov.my

 

From the table above, reefs in the Miri-Sibuti area can be categorized into the following 4 size groups:

1): Extra Large (>100,000 m2) – New Reef VIII, Beting Niah, Batu Tar Reef, Salam Reef, Siwa Reef, Drop-off and Eve’s Garden;

2): Large (20,000 – 99,900 m2) – VHK Reef, Hatano’s Reef, Seafan Garden, New Reef V, Anemone Garden and Santak Point;

3): Medium (10,000 – 19,900 m2) – Belais Reef, Seafan D, Batu Batik, New Reef II, Bunut Reef, Tusan Reef, Lakim Reef, New Reef I and Grouper Patch; 

4): Small (<9,900 m2) – Tukau B, Azam’s Reef, New Reef IV, Berabok Bubble and New Reef III

 

 

SUMMARY – REEF FEATURES

Miri Reefs

1. Eve’s Garden 
· Location : Latitude (Lat) 4° 20.567’/ Longitude (Long) 113° 53.892’
· Distance from Shore: 10.11 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 3.95 m -10.00 m 
· Visibility: Generally >10 m (esp. morning), <1 m when water is turbid (usually in the evening)
· The size of reef: 480 m (NE-SW) x 500 m (SE-NW)

*Special dive attraction: 
· Vividly coloured soft corals & gigantic massive corals, shallow depth and good for beginner divers;
· Sea turtles e.g. green turtles are often observed, and 
· Night dives recommended to see lobsters and bumphead parrotfish.

- The most common coral growth form was massive followed by encrusting/massive on boulder. Eve’s Garden was strongly dominated by the massive form of coral species. However, ‘soft coral & sea whip on boulder’ type of substrates was almost as common as the massive corals. Better coral coverage were detected and observed in the north-eastern to western side of the reef, whereas the area from the south-east to west was dominated by rocks and boulders and hence, less coral and fish species. 

 


2. Azam’s Reef
· Location: (Lat) 4° 19.968’/ (Long) 113° 50.086’
· Distance from Shore: 11.55 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 15.50 m -19.00 m 
· Visibility: Generally 2-3 m but sometimes >10 m (esp. morning), and <1 m when water is turbid (usually in the evening)
· Size of reef: 160 m (NNW-SSE) x 70 m (NE-SW)

– The most dominant growth form was encrusting/massive coral on boulder. Although less common, plate corals and sea fans as well as sea whips were also observed in some parts of the reef. However, dead corals were not observed indicating that impact from the sedimentation such as smothering of corals has not yet occurred in this reef. 



3. Seafan Garden 
· Location: (Lat) 4° 20.967’ / (Long) 113° 51.933’
· Distance from Shore: 15.59 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 16.00 m -18.00 m 
· Visibility: Generally >10 m, <3 m when water is turbid
· Size of reef: 400 m (NE-SW) x 270 m (NEE-SWW)

*Special dive attraction: 
· A good diversity of gorgonians, rich in fish density, batfish frequently sighted.

- Although the reef was named as ‘Seafan Garden’ by local divers and dive operators, the coverage of sea fans were only few. Few gigantic sea fans, a size of up to 2m x 2m, have been observed by divers. Encrusting/massive corals on boulder and rubbles on sand were in fact more commonly encountered substrates. 

Underwater research was conducted at Seafan Garden

 


4. Seafan D 
· Location: (Lat) 4° 19.334’ / (Long) 113° 49.176’
· Distance from Shore: 19.02 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 15.45 m – 22.50 m 
· Visibility: Generally >10 m, <3 m near bottom
· Size of reef: 160 m (NE-SW) x 150 m (SE-NW)

*Special dive attraction: 
· Rich in fish density, schools of batfish, mackerel, trevally, barracuda seen frequently, and 
· Tame lobsters

- The reef is surrounded by rocky seafloor covered entirely with silt. The inherent turbulent flow as well as the fast current has prevented the silt from actually accumulating on the reef itself. ‘Encrusting/massive on boulder’ was the most common coral growth form, and the reef indicated the sea fans as the dominant substrate type.

 

 

5. Belais Reef (Old Name: Seafan E)
· Location: (Lat) 4° 19.377’ / (Long) 113° 49.336’
· Distance from Shore: 15.63 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 14.50 m -18.00 m 
· Visibility: Generally >10 m, <6 m when water is turbid
· Size of reef: 330 m (NNE-SSW) x 290 m (SE-NW)

*Special dive attraction: 
- Moderately high fish and macroinvertebrate biodiversity, good variety of hard and soft coral species especially gorgonians

- ‘Encrusting/massive coral on boulder’ is the dominant substrate type. The encrusting corals covered most of the reef providing a wide habitat to fish and macroinvertebrates. Other substrates recorded were sea whips and soft corals followed by some sea fans. 

 

 

6. Anemone Garden (Old Name: Mike’s Reef)
· Location: (Lat) 4° 17.575’ / (Long) 113° 49.559’
· Distance from Shore: 13.55 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 8.90 m -13.00 m 
· Visibility: Generally >10 m, <6 m when water is turbid
· Size of reef: 270 m (NNE-SSW) x 200 m (SE-NW)

*Special dive attraction: 
· Higher diversity of fish species and higher number of hard corals than those found in Eve’s Garden (from observation and personal interview with local dive operator), various types and colours of soft corals and sea whips, and 
· Red Sea anemone colonies abundant.

- Depth is average. The most dominant substrate type found in the reef was ‘soft coral/sea whip on boulder’ hence the name ‘Anemone Garden’. Encrusting and encrusting/massive corals on boulder as well as massive corals were also common, giving extra features and color variation to the reef. 

Sea whip and Soft corals at Anemone Garden

 

7. Hatano’s Reef
- Location: (Lat) 4° 17.729’ / (Long) 113° 49.486’
- Distance from Shore: 19.77 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 8.50 m -15.00 m 
- Visibility: Generally >10 m, <6 m when water is turbid
- Size of reef: 260 m (NNE-SSW) x 190 m (NEE-SWW)

- It is situated approximately 70 m to northeast of Anemone Garden and thus, both reefs share similar features and characteristics. The most common substrate type was again soft coral/sea whip on rock/boulder covering  of the reef. Other substrates such as encrusting corals, encrusting/massive corals and massive corals were also common although their coverage was not as high as those recorded at Anemone Garden. 

A school of Lutjanus lutjanus at Hatano’s Reef

 

8. VHK Reef
- Location: (Lat) 4° 17.479’ / (Long) 113° 47.773’
- Distance from Shore: 22.77 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 15.60 m -23.00 m 
- Visibility: Generally >10 m, <1 m when water is turbid
- Size of reef: 350 m (NNW-SSE) x 360 m (NEE-SWW)

- Encrusting/massive corals on boulder, were the most dominant growth forms of all substrates found in this reef. The visibility was not very good and sometimes as low as the level recorded in Azam’s reef. However, dead corals were not detected indicating that the reef has not been significantly impacted by sedimentation or other perturbances. 

 

 

  9. Siwa Reef
- Location: (Lat) 4° 16.466’ / (Long) 113° 48.931’
- Distance from Shore: 21.85 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 7.90 m -13.00 m (Generally shallow)
- Visibility: Generally >10 m
- Size of reef: 620 m (NE-SW) x 350 m (NEE-SWW)
- The longest reef in Miri


*Special dive attraction: 
- Highest biodiversity of fish and macroinvertebrate species, and
- Mostly encrusting corals.

- The largest reef in the Miri area and the highest number of substrate types was recorded. 


Acropora sp. at Siwa Reef



10. Sunday Reef
- Location: (Lat) 4° 17.226’ / (Long) 113° 49.194’
- Distance from Shore: 20.74 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 8.90 m -13.00 m (Generally shallow)
- Visibility: Generally >10 m
- Size of reef: 300 m (NE-SW) x 200 m (NEE-SWW)

*Special dive attraction: 
· The 2nd highest biodiversity of fish and macroinvertebrate species, 
· Mostly hard corals.

- The highest coverage was represented by soft coral/sea whip on boulder followed by encrusting/massive growth form of corals. The reef features and environment were similar to Siwa Reef due to the close proximity of the two reefs. 


  Nudibranch is a sea slug, Hypselodoris bullocki  

 

Small crustacean can be seen around Sunday Reef.

11. Salam Reef
- Location: (Lat) 4° 20.092’ / (Long) 113° 46.006’
- Distance from Shore: 24.07 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 16.00 m -32.00 m (Usually deep)
- Visibility: Generally 15-20 m
- Size of reef: 450 m (NNW-SSE) x 450 m (NEE-SWW)

*Special dive attraction: 
- Highly mixed hard and soft corals, high fish biodiversity and particularly pelagic fish such as barracudas and jacks or snappers;
- Occasionally manta ray and seasonally whale sharks are observed

- The reefs with New Reef II were located between the reefs in deep and medium water and were distantly separated from the other reefs. Encrusting/massive and encrusting corals were the most dominant living substrate types, but plate corals were also common showing of the bottom coverage. Schools of pelagic fishes were frequently observed during the survey, which makes it popular with subsistence and recreational fishermen.
 


 

The Stone fish is well named. This sluggish fish lies at the bottom of the shallow waters of Indo-Pacific, Australia, China, and India and is covered with debris and algae.


12. Santak Point 
· Location: (Lat) 4° 24.123’ / (Long) 113° 44.697’
· Distance from Shore: 26.38 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 21.80 m -26.00 m (Usually deep)
· Visibility: Generally 15-20 m
· Size of reef: 350 m (NE-SW) x 210 m (NEE-SWW)

*Special dive attraction: 
· Deep diving possible, good for advanced divers, always excellent visibility; 
· Giant gorgonians of 2m x 2m size common, and 
· Usually schools of batfish and pelagic fish such as jacks and barracudas observed

- The most common substrate type was encrusting/massive coral on boulder, but sea fans and foliose corals (2.5 %).

 

 

3. Drop-off 
- Location: (Lat) 4° 24.162’ / (Long) 113° 44.441’
- Distance from Shore: 26.23 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 15.00 m -29.00 m (Usually deep)
- Visibility: Generally 15-20 m
- Size of reef: 630 m (NE-SW) x 210 m (E-W)

- The largest of reefs located at deep depth i.e. Santak Point, Drop-off, Bunut, Tukau B, New Reef IV & V. Because of the proximity to Santak Point, similar types of substrates characterized both reefs. The topography of the reef like that of Santak Point showed some undulations but it was much steeper that small ‘drop-offs’ were created within the reef. The dominant substrate type was encrusting/massive coral on boulder.

 

 

14. Bunut Reef
- Location: (Lat) 4° 23.238’ / (Long) 113° 42.828’
- Distance from Shore: 29.25 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 31.10 m - 39.00 m (Usually deep)
- Visibility: Generally 15-20 m
- Size of reef: 110 m (NNE-SSW) x 120 m (E-W)

- One of the reefs situated in deep depth sites. Like Drop-off, the bottom coverage of living substrates was generally low. The highest coverage was ‘encrusting/massive corals on boulder’. 

 

 

15. Tukau B 
· Location: (Lat) 4° 23.743’ / (Long) 113° 43.051’
· Distance from Shore: 28.81 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 20.50 m - 42.50 m (Usually deep)
· Visibility: Generally 15-20 m
· Size of reef: 200 m (NE-SW) x 140 m (SE-NW)

- The smallest size reef with the lowest number of substrate types recorded among those located in the deep-depth sites. The dominant substrate type was sea fans followed by encrusting/massive coral growth forms and otherwise sand.

 

 

16. Grouper Patch 
· Location: (Lat) 4° 12.673’ / (Long) 113° 46.309’
· Distance from Shore: 30.14 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 14.30 m -17.50 m 
· Visibility: 2 m when water is turbid
· Size of reef: 230 m (NNW-SSE) x 230 m (NEE-SWW)

- The most dominant substrate was massive corals, but sea fans and encrusting/massive coral forms on boulder were also common. As it was named the reef was a habitat for groupers for many years. 

 


Crown of thorn starfish (Acanthaster plancii), the coral eater!

 


17. Tusan Reef
· Location: (Lat) 4° 14.789’ / (Long) 113° 46.347’
· Distance from Shore: 27.92 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 13.50 m -17.00 m 
· Visibility: 2 m when water is turbid
· Size of reef: 330 m (NE-SW) x 160 m (SEE-NWW)

- The reef was covered with silt most of the time, dominated by encrusting/massive coral on boulder. Others occupying the bottom were non-living substrates such as boulder with algae etc.

 



18. Lakim Reef
· Location: (Lat) 4° 13.304’ / (Long) 113° 47.280’
· Distance from Shore: 27.69 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 14.99 – 20.00 m 
· Visibility: 2 m when water is turbid
· Size of reef: 330 m (NE-SW) x 250 m (SE-NW)

- Lakim Reef with Grouper Patch and Tusan Reef were located in the most southern part of Miri reefs. The three reef complex shared similar characteristics with each other i.e. low coral coverage, low visibility and high sedimentation. Encrusting corals were the most dominant living substrate type followed by rubble on sand.



 

Moray Eel distribute quite high in this area

 



19. New Reef I
- Location: (Lat) 4° 18.081’ / (Long) 113° 47.406’
- Distance from Shore: 22.90 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 20.20 m – 25.00 m
- Visibility: Generally >10 m, <6 m when water is turbid
- Size of reef: 340 m (NNW-SSW) x 330 m (NEE-SWW)

- This reef is located adjacent to VHK Reef but the dominant substrate type was ‘plate corals’ (13.0 %) and not encrusting/massive on boulder. Massive corals were also common showing characteristics different from VHK Reef.

 

 


20. New Reef II
- Location: (Lat) 4° 20.268’ / (Long) 113° 45.958’
- Distance from Shore: 24.14 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 21.10 m -30.00 m (Usually deep)
- Visibility: Generally >10 m, <3 m when water is turbid
- Size of reef: 240 m (NNW-SSE) x 170 m (NEE-SWW)

- The southern end of the reef is connected or very proximate to Salam Reef. It is a small reef but the coverage of encrusting/massive corals on boulder was 11.4 % presenting relatively high substrate coverage. Due to the depth it is located, sea fan was another common substrate type (3.5 %).
 

 


21. New Reef III
· Location: (Lat) 4° 19.968’ / (Long) 113° 50.088’
· Distance from Shore: 14.77 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 18.90 m – 21.50 m
· Visibility: Generally >10 m, <3 m when water is turbid
· Size of reef: 100 m (NNW-SSE) x 100 m (NEE-SWW)
· Located near Seafan Garden

- The next smallest reef in Miri reefs after New Reef IV (Gorgonian Paradise). Because of the size of the reef, the most and only dominant living substrate type was the encrusting/massive corals. 
 

 


22. New Reef IV (Gorgonian Paradise)
· Location: (Lat) 4° 24.120’ / (Long) 113° 44.700’
· Distance from Shore: 25.89 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 21.0 m – 27.0 m (Usually deep)
· Visibility: Generally 15-20 m
· Size of reef: 60 m (NNE-SSW) x 60 m (SE-NW)

*Special dive attraction:
· Deep diving possible, good for advanced divers; 
· Higher number and diversity of gorgonians recorded but smaller size than those found in Santak Point, and 
· Always excellent visibility

- The smallest reef in the Miri-Sibuti areas if it is officially deemed as one individual reef in future. The reef was discovered in this survey together with New Reef V. The dominant growth form was massive corals. Visually dominating type however, was the sea fans. 
 


 


22. New Reef V
· Location: (Lat) 4° 23.910’ / (Long) 113° 44.544’
· Distance from Shore: 26.48 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 21.90 m -37.00 m 
· Visibility: Generally 15-20 m
· Size of reef: 650 m (NE-SW) x 180 m (E-W)

*Special dive attraction:
· Large schools of pelagic fishes and other numerous reef fishes

- Sea fans were frequently observed during the ground-truthing but they were small and individuals appeared distant from each other, and were virtually indefinable in the first round of acoustic mapping. 

Note: New Reef IV is located 20 - 30 m away from Santak Point (SW of Santak P.). New Reef V consists of two patch reefs, but they are considered as one reef for now since they are attached to each other, having similar reef features. 
 

 

 



Sibuti reefs

1. Beting Niah 
- Location: (Lat) 3° 58.060’ / (Long) 113° 32.666’
- Distance from Shore: 19.93 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 4.30 m -14.00 m (Usually shallow)
- Visibility: Generally 15-20 m
- Size of reef: 720 m (NNE-SSW) x 280 m (NE-SW)

*Special dive attraction:
· High density of fish species;
· Moderately high biodiversity of macroinvertebrate species; 
· Tame lobsters;
· Nicely distributed mixture of hard and soft coals, and 
· Shallow depths and good for beginner divers.

- The biggest reef in Sibuti area so far and longest at the Miri-Sibuti reefs. This reef as having one of the highest biodiversity in Miri-Sibuti water. The most dominant coral growth form was encrusting but soft coral/sea whip on boulder represented the highest coral substrate coverage.

 Large table corals distributed at Beting Niah

 

 

High diversity of Tunicate in Beting Niah area

 

 

Sea cucumber, Thelenota ananas species, quite common in this area

 


2. Batu Batik 
- Location: (Lat) 3° 57.058’ / (Long) 113° 30.729’
- Distance from Shore: 19.32 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 11.1 m -18.00 m 
- Visibility: Generally >10 m
- Size of reef: 280 m (NNW-SSE) x 210 m (SEE-NWW)

- Large massive corals and rocks e.g. 1.5 m (H) x 2.0 m (W) were observed everywhere, creating various slopes in the quadrat area studied. Many large plate forms were also observed on the other side of the reef. The dominant coral type was encrusting/massive form on boulder but massive was also common.

 



3. Batu Tar 
- Location: (Lat) 3° 56.108’ / (Long) 113° 30.885’
- Distance from Shore: 24.02 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 10.20 m -17.00 m 
- Visibility: Generally >10 m
- Size of reef: 400 m (NNE-SSW) x 160 m (NE-SW)

- This reef with New Reef VI and VII are very close to each other, creating one big reef group. Because the other two reefs were discovered and mapped without knowing they were in fact different from Tar reef, the three reefs were mapped together and hence, the coverage percentage for each substrate type was collectively processed.

-The most dominant living substrate in these three reefs was encrusting/massive corals on boulder followed by encrusting and massive. 




A Giant clam in Batu Tar 


4. Berabok Bubble 
- Location: (Lat) 3° 57.022’ / (Long) 113° 30.982’
- Distance from Shore: 18.85 km
- Depth range (min.-max.): 5.00 m -18.00 m 
- Visibility: Generally <10 m
- Size of reef: 100 m (NNW-SSE) x 40 m (NEE-SWW)

*Special dive attraction:
· Natural gases have been emitting from the sea bottom, but the gases do not seem to be visibly affecting living substrates of the reef (e.g. corals), and 
· Most common coral growth form is encrusting on boulder.

 



5. New Reef VI
· Location: (Lat) 3° 56.019’ / (Long) 113° 30.948’
· Distance from Shore: 24.02 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 10.20 m -17.00 m 
· Visibility: Generally >10 m
· Size of reef: 400 m (NNE-SSW) x 120 m (NE-SW)

- Located 30 m southeast of Batu Tar, encrusting/massive corals on boulder dominated in Tar reef. 

 

 


6. New Reef VII
· Location: (Lat) 3° 56.841’ / (Long) 113° 30.863’
· Distance from Shore: 24.02 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 10.20 m -17.00 m 
· Visibility: Generally >10 m
· Size of reef: 180 m (NNE-SSW) x 50 m (NE-SW)

- Located 20 m southwest of New Reef VI. The reef was covered mainly with soft coral and sea whip on boulder.

 

 

7. New Reef VIII
· Location: (Lat) 3° 58.560’ / (Long) 113° 32.760’
· Distance from Shore: 17.44 km
· Depth range (min.-max.): 4.84 m -16.00 m 
· Visibility: Generally >10 m
· Size of reef: 940 m (NNE-SSW) x 570 m (NE-SW)

- Located next to Beting Niah, it is assumed that this reef is the biggest of all the reefs in the Miri-Sibuti areas and hence, the biodiversity is possibly high as well. The dominant growth form was encrusting corals on boulder followed by soft coral/sea whip on rock/boulder and encrusting/massive forms in boulder. Massive corals were another common living substrate type. 
 

 


8. Sri Gadong (Wreck)
*Special dive attraction:
· Tremendous number and diversity of fish species, and
· Home to large tame groupers, feeding of groupers possible.

 

 

 


Back to Welcome Page