SEAWEED RESOURCES OF SARAWAK

 

INTRODUCTION

Sarawak has a land area of 124,449 k which represents 38% of Malaysia's land.mass with a coastline length approximately 1000 km. In general, the climate along the Sarawak coast is tropical monsoon characterized by high temperature, high humidity and. heavy seasonal rainfall. Long term average daily temperatures along the coast-range from as high of 31°C to as low of 22°C, with very little seasonal variation. On the other hand, rainfall shows considerable seasonal variation in tune with the monsoon periods. Tidal range along the Sarawak coast is generally large, up to 6 meters. The coastal waters are enriched with nutrients leached from the land and all this support a highly diverse flora and fauna. Among the conspicuous floras in the coastal environment are the seaweeds.

Seaweeds are macro benthic marine algae. They form a conspicuous component of primary producers in the shallow marine environment. They possess different type of pigments such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, phycobilins, and other accessory pigments which enable them to synthesize organic compound from simple compounds such as water and carbon dioxide in the presence of light as source of energy. Except among the blue green algae, the pigments are contained in organelles called plastids. Chlorophyll a, the primary pigment is present in all groups however, other chlorophyll and accessory pigments such as the phycobilin, carotenoids may differ among the major groups. The accessory pigments may blend or mask chlorophyll a to produce the diagnostic colour of the different groups, thus the names green, brown, blue-green and red seaweeds originated.

As Sarawak is surrounded by warm waters on all sides and the sun shines all the year round, seaweeds tends to grow luxuriously along the coastal areas. This is especially so on the reef flats in Kuching Division at the southern portion and the Miri Division at the northern portion and around most of the Kuching Division offshore islands. Seaweeds tend to grow well in protected areas, that is why seaweeds were found attached to the rocky beach in Pantai Similajau (Bintulu Division-northern portion). Meanwhile, the muddy mangrove area along Pulau Salak area support specialised types of seaweeds of limited species.

Most seaweeds are limited in their distribution at the intertidal to the shallow subtidal zone in the marine environment although a few may be found high in the' supratidal zone (spray zone). The difference in their distributional pattern is reflective of their ability to adapt to the ambient ecological condition in their habitat. Some species are found only in sheltered bays and coves or on the reef flat with other distributed only in the rocky wave-exposed areas along the shore or near the reef edge. The presence of the species in certain habitat is depended on their ability to adapt to the synergistic effect of the different of ecological factors in the environment.

It has been the intention of this study to record the seaweed resources of Sarawak (because of the limited studies that have been done). The method adopted was simple. Regular visits were made to various coastal areas and offshore islands to collect specimens. The specimens were identified and preserve as herbarium sheets. In identifying most of the seaweeds, a X 10 magnification band lens was used. However, in microscopic forms and the identification of species of certain microscopic forms, a compound microscope was necessary. This is because certain microscopic characters are of specific significance. In some cases it was necessary to take cross-sections of the thallus, and in such instances, a sharp blade was used and the sections examined under the microscope. AIl the herbarium was kept in Fisheries Research Institute, Sarawak Branch, Bintawa, Kuching for display and reference.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study site

The study sites were divided into three categories that include

1 ) islands and coral reef grounds including Pulau Satang Besar, Pulau Satang Kecil, Pulau Lakei, Batu Semarang, Teluk Serabang, Pulau Sempadi, Samunsam, Pulau Gador, Pulau Talang- Talang Besar, Pulau Talang- Talang Kecil (Kuching Division), Mike's Reef, Ursula Shoals, Scubasa Reef, Tukau, Bakam (Miri Division)

2) rocky beaches including Pantai Similajau and Pantai Bungai (Bintulu and Miri Division respectively);

3) mangrove areas including Pulau Salak, Tanjung Batu, Salak, Miang Kecil, Muara Gelugor and Muara Mengkuang.

 

Trips

Monthly trips were made from May 1996 to September 1996, nom April 1997 to July 1997 and May 1998 to November 1998 during low tide.

 

Sampling Procedure

Sampling was done randomly and the method of collection was using '( SCUBA-diving covering islands and coral reef grounds, whereas walking along J )( the beach method was used to collect sample at rocky/sandy beach.

 

Collecting and preserving seaweeds

The best time for collection was during low tide when a large expanse of the shore was exposed. For SCUBA- Diving entailing areas like islands and coral reef grounds, collection can be done any time as long as the water visibility is good. When collecting at rocky beach, the trip was planned to coincide with the hour of falling tide, particularly one to two hours before low tide, so that the seaweeds could be observed, collected, and recorded in their natural habitat and life position. Tide tables must be obtained in planning of collecting specimens.

In warm waters, as a manner of collecting seaweeds, trousers should be worn to guard against cuts and scratches nom barnacles or coral, and rubber shoes will aid movement over slippery rocks. Entire plants were collected to make sure that the holdfast was not left out. It was relatively easy to detach the holdfast in certain species but in others this required some effort. In such cases a sharp instrument (like scrapping blade) was used. Samples were collected for specific use and it was unnecessary to over-collect. Other necessity included pails, plastic bags, label, putty knife, forceps plus hammer and chisel for collecting crustose specimen.

When collecting at any locality has been completed, the specimens were.either be pressed directly as fresh material (for delicate specimen), but for coarser specimen, 4 to 5% formalin was poured into every each plastic bags.

When collecting, attention should be paid to the less obvious species that grow on, or under, the larger,. conspicuous plants. Small, delicate forms were found as epiphytes on the fronds, stipes and holdfasts of large thalli, whilst crustose taxa grew both as epiphytes on other algae and as lithophytes on hard substrata. Some species grew only submerged in rock-pools; filamentous forms. might bind sand . and silt nom which they must be washed gently.

 

Identification of the samples collected

Identification of the samples collected was made using reference books, journals and confirmation of the samples collected made by Professor Dr. Phang Siew Moi from University of Malaya. All the samples collected and identified have been preserved as herbarium. Recognition of the plants, both as they appear in nature or as preserved specimen, was accomplished by this practice .of handling and distinguishing .them plus reading. and understanding the ,description to familiarize individuals to confirm the specimen collected.

 

How to make herbarium

The preparation of preserved specimens was begun at once, although it was preferable to . leave it in preservative for few day~ to allow complete fixation (for delicate specimens, herbarium should be made as soon as possible to hinder deterioration). In processing the specimens, necessary equipment were: drawing paper (or unglazed paper), blotting paper, muslin clot~ enamel tray (or shallow dish), newspaper, herbarium paper, forceps, small brush, scrapping blade. The specimen were washed in the sea water to remove sands, then, once more it was washed using fresh water to remove excess dirt and debris using small brush, forceps and scrapping blade to thoroughly make sure that when the specimen dried, moulding could not take place.

The specimen was ultimately placed on standard drawing paper, mounting was done in a flat enamel tray, large enough to accommodate the paper. The water must be at least deep enough so as to allow the particular specimen to float and later spreading it on the. paper. After the specimen has been spread out in the natural manner, the sheet was lifted carefully from one side to allow the water to drain off gradually and to leave the specimen spread out undisturbed. After that, the mounted specimen was covered in a piece of muslin cloth, then a blotting paper was placed on top of the muslin cloth to absorb extra water and later the specimen was placed between newspapers. More specimen were piled with newspapers between and slight pressure to the pile (the pressure can be books, wooden frame etc), was provided to facilitate the drying procedures, the newspaper was often changed, daily even twice a day depending on the specimen. When the specimen were totally dried (small specimen took 3 days and large specimen took 7 days), the muslin cloth was peeled off carefully, the mounted dried specimen was then pasted onto standard -size herbarium papers. Labels bearing date of collection, location, collection number, Family, Scientific name of the specimen, determiner/collector and some notes were attached. This labelling must tally with the field book, and according to alphabetical order and stored in cabinet/cupboard for reference.

 

Data Analysis and Report

Data analysis was done based on samples that have been collected. The samples have been categorized into commercial and non-commercial species which will be arranged as inventory information on the "Seaweed resources in Sarawak".

 

 

 Distribution of Seaweed in Kuching Division

 

 

Distribution of Seaweed in Bintulu Division

 

 

Distribution of Seaweed in Bintulu Division

 

 

Distribution of Seaweed in Salak Mangrove Estuary

 

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In terms of diversity, the species taxonomy composition in Sarawak is low. One of the main factors contributing to the low diversity of algae/seaweeds species around Sarawak is the relatively large tidal range(> 3 m). and relatively low sheltered bays and islands. The water here is turbid and therefore light (which is essential for growth) will only penetrate to a shallow depth (probably less than one meter). These two factors act together such that for algae to be able to photosynthesize at high tide it must grow higher in the intertidal region and would therefore be exposed to the air at low tide. Algae growing. in areas. where exposure times were limited would be too deep during high tide and unable to. photosynthesize. sufficiently to support growth.

Checklists of the marine algae of Malaysia have been published (Phang, 1984, 1986, Phang & Wee, 1991; Teo & Wee, 1983). The checklists have been based on all available published reports and on collections made which did not include seaweed in Sarawak.

From this study, it shows that the most abundance seaweeds in Sarawak is from the Rhodophyta Division followed by Chlorophyta Division and Phaeophyta Division. In terms of Division, from the Rhodophyta Division, the most abundance seaweeds comes from the Family Gracilariaceae, whereas Chlorophyta Division, the most dominant comes from the Family Caulerpaceae and Phaeophyta Division the most abundance comes from the Family Sargassaceae.

In terms of locality surveyed, a more complex diversity can be seen in Kuching Division (all the survey area covering islands and coral reef grounds). In Miri Division, the species taxonomy composition, lies on the species that have correlation/integration with coral reef community.

The collection of seaweed species covering rocky/sandy beach entailing Pantai Bungai, Miri And Pantai Similajau, Bintulu indicate that Pantai Bungai has no seaweed but in 1992 (personal observation); particularly Gracilaria grew in this area. It could be because of erosion and the beach has been exposed to stronger waves.

In contrast to Pantai Bungai, Pantai Similajau reveals a variety and abundance of seaweeds, especially Gracilaria salicomia, Laurencia papillosa, Laurencia lageniformis, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Enteromorpha tubulosa. This area is a well protected area, and the rocky beach is really suitable for attachment of seaweeds spore. Size comparison can be made with the same species found on islands in Kuching.
The species in Kuching smaller compared to those in Pantai Similajau. This could be due to favourable condition in Pantai Similajau, Bintulu.

In the mangrove areas of Pulau Salak, seaweeds Bostrychia binderi, Dictyota friabilis, Cladophora sp., Catenella nipae can be found in abundance. All the species have integration with mangrove community. Here, the seaweeds bearing agar, Gracilaria changii and Gracilaria blodgettii are found attached to mangrove tree roots, particularly, Avicennia sp., and Rhizophora sp., and they are available throughout the year(personal communication with fishermen in Salak). This indicates that the seed can be obtained throughout the year. The species from floating cage systems (owned by FRI) is dominated by Gracilaria changii, Gracilaria edulis plus some other seaweeds like Padina minor, Sargassum ilicifolium, Caulerpa verticillata, Acanthophora spicifera, Bryopsis hypnoides, B. pennata and others.

From this survey, the Gracilaria can be cultured in floating cages. Floating raft system are generally used where the water is too deep for bottom culture or where tidal fluctuations are large ( >3 m). This is the type of system most likely to be useful in the estuarine areas in Sarawak as recommended by consultant for paper on seaweed resources of Sarawak: commercial, potential and utilization by Anthony Cheshire, 1994).
 

 

LIST OF SEAWEED FOUND IN SARAWAK (*P.= Pulau or Island)

TAXA LOCATION
DIVISION CHLOROPHYTA

ORDER DASYCLADALES

FAMlLY ACETABULARIACEAE

 

 
Acetabularia major Martens

 

Between Tg. Lubok Padok and Tg. Batu Kudu, Similajau, Bintulu

 

Acetabularia sp.

 

Teluk Melano,Sematan, Kuching.

 

FAMlLY DASYCLADACEAE

Bornetella sp.

Neomeris annulaia Dickie'

 

 

Tg. Datu, Sematan Kuching

Tg. Datu, Sematan, Kuching

 

ORDER ULVALES

FAMlLY ANADYOMENACEAE

Anadyomene plicata C. Agardh

Anadyomene stellata (Wulfen) C. Agardh
 

 

Turtle Beach 1, Similajau, Bintulu

FAMILY CLADOPHORACEAE

Chaetomorpha minima Collins &. Harvey

Chaetomorpha linum (Miiller)Kiitzing

Cladophora fascicularis (Mert. )Kiitzing

Cladophora patentiramea (Mont. )Kiitzing

 

 

Pantai Similajau, Similajau,. Bintulu

Tanjung Batu, Salak, Kuching

P.Salak, Kuching (at floating net cages-entangled with other seaweeds)

Tanjung Batu, Salak, Kuching

 

FAMILY ULVACEAE

Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus )Nees

Enteromorpha tubulosa Kiitzing

 

 

Between Tg. Lubok Padok and Turtle Beach 1, Similajau, Bintulu

Pantai Similajau, Similajau, Bintulu

 

FAMlLY VALONIACEAE

Valonia utricularis(Roth)C. Agardh

 

 

Mike's Reef, Miri

 

FAMlLY BOODLEACEAE

Cladophoropsis membranaceae (C. Agardh) Bmgesen

 

 

Pulau Talang Talang Besar, Santubong, Kuching

 

ORDER CAULERPALES

FAMILY BRYOPSIDACEAE

Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux

Bryopsis pennata Lamouroux

 

 

P. Salak, Kuching ( at floating net cages)

 

FAMILY CAULERPACEAE

Caulerpa lentillifera J. Agardh

C. microphysa (Weber-van Bosse) J. Feldmann

C. peltata Lamouroux

C. serrulata (Forsskal)J. Agardh

C. sertularioides (Gmelin) Howe

C. taxifolia (Vahl)C. Agardh

C. verticillata J. Agardh

 

 

Siwa Shoals, Miri

Batu Semarang, Santubong, Siwa Shoals, Miri

Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu

Scubasa Reef, Miri

Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu

Siwa Shoals, Miri

P. Salak, Kuching( at floating net cages)

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Avrainvillea erecta (Berkeley)A & E.S. Gepp

Avrainvillea sp.

Halimeda discoidea

Halimeda opuntia var minor (Linnaeus) Lamouroux

Halimeda tuna (Ellis & So lander) Lamouroux

Halimeda macroloba Decaisne

Halimeda simulan Howe

Halimeda sp.

Halimeda sp. 1

Halimeda sp. 2

Udotea flabellum (Ellis et So lander) Lamouroux

Udotea javensis (Montagne) A. & E.S. Gepp

Udotea sp.

 

 

Teluk Melano, Sematan, Kuching

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching

MuaraTiong, Sg.Sibu Salak, Kuching

Siwa Shoals, Miri

Between Tg. Lubok Padok and Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu

Teluk Melano, Sematan, Kuching

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching

Mike's Reef, Miri

MuaraTiong,Sg.Sibu Salak, Kuching

MuaraTiong,Sg.Sibu Salak, Kuching

Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu

P. Satang Kedl, Santubong, Kuching

Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu

 

DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA

ORDER DICTYOTALES

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Dictyopteris delicatula Lamouroux

 

 

 

 

Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu

 

Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) Lamouroux

Dictyota friabilis Setchell

Dictyota mertensii (Martius) Kutzing

Dictyota sp.

 

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching

Tanjung Batu, Salak, Kuching

Tg. Datu, Sematan, Kuching

Mike's Reef, Miri

 

Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley

Padina australis Hauck

Padina boryana Thivy

Padina minor Yamada

Padina sp.

Padina sp. I

Padina sp. 2

Padina sp. 3

Padina sp. 4

Padina tenuis Bory

Padina tetrastromatica Hauck

Zonaria sp.

 

P. Satang Besar,Santubong, Kuching

P. Satang Kecil,Santubong, Kuching

P.Salak, Kuching

P. Sempadi, Santubong, Kuching

Batu Mandi, Similajau, Bintulu

Batu Mandi, Similajau, Bintulu

P. Salak, Kuching

P. Salak, Kuching

P. Salak, Kuching

P. Tukong Ara, P. Tukong Banun, Santubong,Kuching

P. Sempadi, Santubong, Kuching

Batu Mandi, Similajau, Bintulu

 

ORDER FUCALES

FAMILY SARGASSACEAE

Sargassum crassifolium J. G. Agardh

Sargassum ilicifolium (Turner)Agardh

Sargassum polycystum Agardp

Sargassum siliquosum Agardh

Sargassum spathulaefolium J. Agardh

Sargassum sp.

Spatoglossum sp

Spatoglossum sp. 1

 

 

 

Pantai Similajau, Bintulu

P. Salak, Kuching (at floating net cages)

P. Gador,Sematan, Kuching

P. Satang Besar, Santubong, Kuching

P.Sempadi,Santubong, Kuching

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching

 

ORDER SCYTOSIPHONALES

FAMILY SCYTOSIPHONACEAE

Rosenvingea orientalis (J. Agardh) Borgesen

Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbes & Solier

 

 

 

Ursula Shoals, Miri

P. Satang Kecil, Santubong, Kuching

 

DIVISION RHODOPHYTA

ORDER NEMALIONALES

FAMILY CHAETANGIACEAE

Galaxaura oblongata (Ellis &, Solander) Lamouroux

Scinaia boergesenni Tseng

Scinaia sp.

 

 

 

 

Siwa Shoals, Miri

Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu

Scubasa Reef, Miri

 

FAMILY DELESSERIACEAE

Martensia sp.

 

 

Siwa Shoals, Miri

 

FAMILY GELIDIACEAE

Gelidiella acerosa (Forsskal) Feldmann & Hamel

 

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching
ORDER CERAMIALES

FAMILY RHODOMELACEAE

Bostrychia binderi Harvey

 

 

Muara Mengkuang, Salak, Kuching

ORDER CRYPTONEMUALES

FAMILY CORALLINACEAE

Amphiroa anceps (Lamarck) Decaisne

Amphiroa foliacea Lamouroux

Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) Lamouroux

Jania capillacea Harvey

 Jania decussato-dichotoma (Yendo) Yendo

Jania sp.

Corallina sp.

 

 

 

Siwa Shoals, Miri

P. T alang-Talang Besar, Sematan, Kuching

Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu

Siwa Shoals, Miri

Pantai Similajau, Similajau, Bintulu

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching

 

FAMILY HALYMENIACEAE

Halymenia dilatata Zanardini

Halymenia maculata J. Agardh

Halymenia sp

 

Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu

Siwa Shoals, Miri

Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu

ORDER GIGARTINALES

FAMILY CAULACANTHACEAE

Catenella nipae Zanardini

FAMILY GRACILARIACEAE

Gracilaria changii (Xia & Abbott ) Zhang & Xia

G. coronopifolia J. Agardh

G. blodgettii Harvey

G. edulis (G.S. Gmelin)P.C. Silva

G. salicornia (C. Agardh) Dawson

G. arcuata Zanardini

Gracilaria sp.

Gracilaria sp. 1

Gracilaria sp. 2

 

 

 

Tanjung Batu, Salak, Kuching

 

P. Salak, Kuching

P. Salak, Kuching

M.Mengkuang, Miang Kecil, Salak

P. Salak, Kuching

P. Similajau, Bintulu

P. Similajau, Bintulu

P. Similajau, Bintulu

P. Similajau, Bintulu

Muara Mengkuang, Salak, Kuching

 

FAMILY HYPNEACEAE

Hypnea esperi Bory de Saint Vincent

Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh) Kutzing

Hypnea sp.

Hypnea sp. 1

 

 

P. Talang-Talang Kecil, Kuching

Teluk Melano, Sematan, Kuching

Pantai Similajau, Bintulu

Pantai Similajau, Bintulu

 

FAMILY SQUAMARIACEAE / RHlZOPHYLLIDACEAE

Peyssonelia rubra (Greville) J. Agardh

 

Mike's Reef, Miri
FAMILY RHODYMENIACEAE

Chrysymenia sp.

 

 

Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu

 

FAMILY SOLIERIACEAE

Solieria sp.

 

 

Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu

 

ORDER CERAMIALES

FAMILY CERAMIACEAE

Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harvey

 

 

 

Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching

 

FAMILY RHODOMELACEAE

Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Borgesen

Laurencia lageniformis

Laurencia majuscula

Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) Lamouroux

Laurencia papillosa (C. Agardh) Greville

Laurencia perforata Montagne

Laurencia cartilaginea Yamada

UNIDENTIFIED 1

UNIDENTIFIED 2

UNIDENTIFIED 3

UNIDENTIFIED 4

UNIDENTIFIED 5

UNIDENTIFIED 6

UNIDENTIFIED 7

UNIDENTIFIED 8

UNIDENTIFIED 9

UNIDENTIFIED 10

UNIDENTIFIED 11

 

 

P. Salak, Kuching

P. Similajau, Bintulu

P. Sempadi, P. Satang Besar, Santubong, Kuching

Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu

Between Tg. Lubok Padok and Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu

Tanjung Batu, Salak, Kuching

Between Tg. Lubok Padok and Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu

P. Talang- Talang Kecil Kuching

Between Tg. Lubok Padok And Turtle Beach I

Scubasa Reef, Miri

P. Salak, Kuching

P. Salak, Kuching

P. Talang-Talang Besar, Kuching

Between Tg. Lubok Padok and Turtle Beach I

Turtle Beach II

Turtle Beach II

Samunsam, Sematan, Kuching

Samunsam, Sematan, Kuching

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

From the results, the species taxonomic composition of seaweed found are : 41 specimens from the Rhodophyta Division, 36 specimens from the Chlorophyta Division and 28 specimens from Phaeophyta Division, plus unidentified specimen (still with Dr. Phang Siew Moi for identification - 11 specimens) that makes the total sum of 116 species. Among them, there are two new records that is Scinaia boergesenni (Rhodophyta Division) and Zonaria sp., (Phaeophyta Division).

The most abundance seaweed comes from the Rhodophyta Division and the most dominant genus are Gracilaria. In terms of culture potential Gracilaria has been known to be a suitable candidate.

 

 

THE MAJOR CLASSES OF SEAWEEDS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIVE SPECIES

CLASS CHLOROPHYCEAE (Green seaweed)

In the green algae, there is the predominance of the. green pigments, chlorophylls a and b, which mask the pigment' such as carotenes, luteins, and other Xanthophylls - zeaxanthin and siphonaxanthin. As in the other group, these photosynthetic pigments are found in the lamellae (called thylakoids) of the chloroplasts, which in the green algae are grouped into bands of three to seven. Their cell wall is composed of an outer pectin layer and inner cellulose layer.

Some species have calcified walls consisting of an aragonite form of calcium carbonate. Starch is their photosynthetic product. Reproduction iri this group is both sexual and asexual. Asexual reproduction is by motile (zoospores) and nonmotile (aplanospores) spores. Sexual reproduction is commonly by motile gametes:isogametes, anisogametes, eggs and sperms. Vegetative 'multiplication' through fragmentation of the thallus is common especially among the filamentous species. Life histories among the green algae are highly diverse. Most members exhibit haplontic life history although diplontic and diplohaplontic types also occur among some members.

 

 

FAMILY ACETABULARIACEAE

Acetabularia major Martens

Thalli moderately calcified up to 6 cm tall, consisting of a slender stalk and a terminal cap, 18 mm in diameter, made up of sixty-three to eighty-five gametangial rays laterally attached to each other by calcification; gametangial rays cylindrical-compressed, decreasing in diameter towards the centre of the cap, their terminal wall at the margin of the cap truncate to slightly emarginate. Growing in colonies on rocks, shell in moderately wave-washed habitats near shore and in shallow water.

Habitat: This species always found attached to rocky substrates.

Local Distribution: Dominant in between Tg. Lubok Padok (03°22.80'N, 113° 09.9'E) and Tg. Batu Kudu (03° 21.60'N, 113° 09.25'E)

Reference: Gavino C. Trono, Jr. (1997)

[picture upon request]

Economic Importance

Application: Medicine; for bladder and kidney ailments.

 

 

FAMILY ACETABULARIACEAE

Acetabularia sp.

Bushy plant attached to substrate with big holdfast (full with rhizoids). Grows straight and alone but attached to the same holdfast. The stipe greenish in colour and 8 - 10 cm long. Long stipe, bringing with disc apex but some are stipes alone.

Habitat: This particular species is found together with coral and found in 4.6 meters depth.

Local Distribution: Found in Teluk Melano, Sematan, (01°52.5'N, 109°43'E)

[picture upon request]

 

FAMILY ANADYOMENACEAE

Anadyomene plicata C. Agardh

Thalli form low, caespitose greenish clumps attached to solid substrate by rhizoidal holdfast. The clump consists of several overlapping stalked blades with entire to undulate margins. The veins produce five to seven flabellately divergent branches at each polychotomous, all or commonly form to five of these develop into the main veins, the two or three at the middle usually the largest. Common on rocks or dead corals at the intertidal to shallow subtidal areas exposed to moderate water movement.

Habitat: Attached to rocks.

Local Distribution: Turtle Beach I, Similajau (03° 23.58'N, 113° 1O.29'E)

Reference: Gavino C. Trono, Jr. (1997)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY ANADYOMENACEAE

Anadyomene stellata (Wulfen) C. Agardh

Plants with a rhizoidal base and a crisp cluster of flat blades, 3 - 6 cm in height; the blades ovate to reniform in shape and one cell thick. Throughout the blade there are single, branching filaments which form pseudoveins. The area between the veins is filled with oval to elongate cells.

Habitat: Attached to rocks on rocky beaches.

Local Distribution:Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu Division (03 °23.58'N, 113° 10.29'E)

References: Taylor (1960), Humm & Taylor (1961)

[picture upon request]

 

FAMILY BOODLEACEAE

Cladophoropsis membranaceae (C. Agardh) Borgesen (membrana, skin)

Tufts of dark green mats, stiff, rough, 0.5 - 3 cm high, 5 - 10 cm across. Cells of varying lengths; longer than broad; branching dichotomous or unilateral; tennina1 cells of branches curving downwards.

Habitat: Attached to rock.

Local Distribution: Pulau Talang- Talang Besar (01° 55'N, 109° 46.5'E)

References: Abbott & HolJenberg (1976); Dawson (1954); Durairatnam (1961 ); Lawson & Joho (1982); Taylor (1960, 1969, 1972); Too & Wee (1982)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY BRYOPSIDACEAE

Byropsis hypnoides Lamouroux

Plants semi-erect, in bunches, 4 - 10 em tall. Light-green in colour; attached to discoidal holdfast. Numerous axis branching by uneven radius marking; becoming smaller and finer without obvious branchlets.

Habitat:Attached on floating net cages.

Local Distribution:Pulau Salak (01°40.5'N, 110° 17.5'E)

References:Durairatnam (1961); Kapraun (1984); Smith (1969); Taylor (1957, 1972)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY BRYOPSIDACEAE

Bryopsis pennata Lamouroux (bryon, a lichen or tree moss; opsis, appearance; pennatus, feathered)

Plants grows in bunches or developing into mat., siphonaceous thallus, dark colour, 3 cm tall, attached with rhizoid. Main filament straight or erect, uneven. Ramuli on both opposite branching, 0.5 - 2 mm long, end of ramuli arcuate.

Habitat: Attached to net at floating net cages.

Local Distribution: PuIau Salak (01°40.5'N, 110°17.5'E)

References: Crane (1981); Durairatnam (1961); Lawson & John (1982); Pham (1969); Taylor (1960, 1967b, 1972); Too & Wee (1983)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY CAULERPACEAE

Caulerpa lentillifera J. Agardh (lenticula, a lentil; -fero, to bear)

Plants dark-green, , 0.5cm - 10 m tall, assimilators branched or not; ramuli borne on assimilators like bunches of grapes; globose; 2 mm diameter on average; pedicels crowded together, constriction at junction of pedicel and ramulus distinguishes this species from Caulerpa racemosa; creeping stolon tough, branches 2 mm thick with colourless rhizoids.

Habitat:Living together with coral reef community, sandy-muddy area

Local Distribution:Siwa Shoals, Miri Division (04°18'N, 113° 49'E)

References: Mefiez & Calumpong (1982); Taylor (1960, 1969); Too & Wee (1983); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1988).

Economic Importance: Application: Human food; Medicine: antibacterial, antifungal, lower blood pressure, treats rheumatism.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY CAULERPACEAE

Caulerpa microphysa (Weber-van Bosse) J. Feldmann

Thalli small up to 1.5 cm tall, forming dense clusters consisting of the prostrate, terete, naked branched stolon less than 1 mm in diameter attached to the substrate by rhizoids and erect, terete branches which are simple or branched bearing crowded stalked spherical ramuli, 1-1.5 mm in diameter. Grow on dead corals or coralline rocks in intertidal to shallow subtidal wave-exposed areas on the reef.

Habitat: Sandy-muddy substratum.

Local Distribution: Batu Semarang, Kuching Division(01° 51.3 'N, 110° 21 'E) (Near to Tanjung Sipang) and also found abundant in Siwa Shoals, Miri Division«04 0 18'N, 113 o 49'E)

References: Mefiez & Calumpong (1982); Taylor (1972).

Economic Importance Application: Human food, Medicine: antibacteria, antifungal.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY CAULERPACEAE

Caulerpa peltata Lamouroux (caulis, stem; herpo, to creep; pelte, crescent-shaped shield)

Plants grass-green in water; 1 - 3 cm tall bearing one to many assimilators. Colourless stolon creeping; stolon blackish green in older regions, tough, much branched, 0.75 - 1.5 mm thick and bearing colourless rhizoids; ramuli peltate, disc-like, with smooth edges, without undulations or serrations, 2 - 4 mm diameter, sometimes top-shaped ramuli arise on same or different assimilators; ramuli borne on pedicels 0.5 - 2.0 mm long, 0.25 - 1.0 mm thick radiating ttom assimilators axis in an upward oblique manner, sparse or abundant.

Habitat:Attached to rocks.

Local Distribution:Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu Division (03°24.13 'N, 113°10.52 E)

References: Durairatnam (1961); Egerod (1971); Mefiez & Calumpong (1982); Pham (1969); Taylor (1960, 1967a, 1972); Too & Wee (1983); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1988).

[picture upon request]

 

FAMILY CAULERPACEAE

Caulerpa serrulata (Forsskal) J. Agardh (serrula, a small saw)

Plants light green in colour; at the tip a bit yellowish green. Erect foliar branches 2 - 15 mm apart on tough wiry stolons, 1 - 6 cm high on stipes, edges serrated, often twisted, with rigid 'proliferations, single or dichotomously branches; serrations absent on in folded margins laterally compressed, mucronate teeth as long as broad, stolon 0.5 - 2.0 mm thick.

Habitat: Living in sandy-silty substratum, coral reef area.

Local distribution:Scubasa Reef, Miri Division (04°.635'N, 113° 53.888'E)

References: Eubank (1946); Mefiez & Calumpong (1982); Teo & Wee (1983); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1988).

Economic Importance: Application: Human food, Medicine: antibacteria, antifungal, lower blood pressure, with peroxidase activity.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY CAULERPACEAE

Caulerpa sertularioides (Gmelin) Howe (serta, a garland)

Pinnate assimilators feather-like, 1.5 - 9 cm tall, crowded along stolon 2 - 7 mm apart; stolon 0.75 mm thick and assimilator axis 0.5 mm thick, both tough and darkish-green in colour; assimilators and assimilator axes cylindrical unlike C. taxifolia which possessed flattened ones, pinnae oypositely arranged; curved upwards, lanceolate, mucronate.

Habitat: Attached to rocks and sponge.

Local Distribution: Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu Division (03°23.58'N, 113° 10.29'E)

Reference: Durairatnam (1961); Taylor (1972); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1988).

Economic Importance: Application: Human food, medicine: antibacteria, antifungal, antitumor, lower blood pressure, treats/prevents goiter, with hemagglutination activity for rabbit and sheep, erythrocytes with peroxidase activity.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY CAULERPACEAE

Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh (taxis, arrangement; folium, leaf)

Assimilators 1 - 10 cm tall, feather-like, branched or unbranched, flat, closely arranged 2 - 4 mm apart on the creeping stolon; rhizoids arising from naked stolons just below assimilators; pinnae on assimilators oppositely arranged, point upwards, sickle-shaped, constricted near base, mucronate and approximately 1 mm long.

Habitat: Living together with coral reef community, Depth around 30 feet, sandy-muddy substratum.

Local Distribution: Siwa Shoals, Miri Division (04° 18'N, 113 ° 49'E)

References: Durairatnam (1961); Eubank (1975); Lawson & John (1982); Macgruder & Hunt (1979); Taylor (1972); Teo & Wee (1983); Trono & Ganzon- Fortes (1988); Tseng (1984).

Economic Importance: Application: Human food, medicine: antifungal, antibacteria, antitubercular, lower blood pressure.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY CAULERPACEAE

Caulerpa verticillata J. Agardh (verticil latus, whorled)

Erect branches 2 mm high, with one verticil only, borne on slender stolons at close intervals; each whorl of verticil on erect branches of filaments which branch from about the middle; branching dichotomous, terminating as determinate branchlets; rhizoids scattered irregularly along stolon; siphonaceous and appear like Chara to the unaccustomed eyes.

Habitat: Attached to floating net cages and as epiphyte to other large seaweed.

Local Distribution:Pulau Salak (01 ° 40.5'N, 110 ° 17.5'E)

References: Crane (1981); Mefiez & Calumpong (1982); Pham (1969); Taylor (1960, 1969, 1972); Teo & Wee (1983); Tseng (1984).

Economic Importance: Application: Human food; Medicine: antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, with peroxidase activity

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY CLADOPHORACEAE

Chaetomorpha minima Collins & Harvey

The filament straight; dark-green in colour, found as small colonies or entangled with other algae; up to 5 mm high. Thallus cylindrical, cell wall thin, constricted at septum, wall stratified.

Habitat: Attached to rocks on rocky beaches in Sirnilajau

Local Distribution: Pantai Sirnilajau, Bintulu Division.

References: Taylor (1960, 1972).

[picture upon request]

 

FAMILY CLADOPHORACEAE

Chaetomorpha linum (Miiller)Kiitzing (linum, thread)

Filaments unattached, dark bright green, fur like, stiff and curled; cells rectangular, constricted at the septa.

Habitat:Living together with mangrove community.

Local Distribution:Tanjung Batu, Salak, Kuching Division.

References:Abbott & Hollenberg (1976); Dawson et al. (1964); Jaasund (1976); Lawson & John (1982); Taylor (1957, 1960, 1966, 1967b, 1972); Teo & Wee (1983); Tseng (1984).

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY CLADOPHORACEAE

Cladophora patentiramea (Mont.) Kiitzing (kados, branch; phora, movement)

Filaments fine, dark, dirty green with branches arising at distal end of cells just below septa; cells ten times as long as broad.

Habitat: Living together with mangrove community

Local Distribution: Tanjung Batu, Salak, Kuching Division.

References: Islam (1976); Jaasund (1976)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY CLADOPHORACEAE

Cladophora fascicularis (Mert.) Kiitzing

The main axis consists of elongated cells about 70 micro in diameter with thickened, striated cell walls 18 - 22 micro thick. From this sparsely branched main axis arise densely branched fasciculate ramuli.

Habitat: Attached to floating net cages (entangled with other seaweed)

Local Distribution: Pulau Salak, Kuching Division. (01 °40.5'N, 110° 17.5'E)

Reference: Egerod (1974); Taylor (1960); Taylor (1966); Dawson (1954); Durairatnam (1961); Womersley (1956a, b); Nizamudin & Begum (1974); Chapman (1961)

[picture upon request]

 

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Avrainvillea erecta (Berkeley) A & E.S. Gepp (erectus, upright)

Erect, flat flabellum, fan-shaped, soft and fleshy, margins not smooth but lobed or with irregular protrusions; thin out towards margin, flabellum of intertwined Y -shaped filaments, constricted above the forks, bright orange-green in colour, bulbose foot 9 cm long, holds plant very fIrmly to substratum; flabellum and foot connected by very short stipe.

Habitat: Sandy-muddy substrate, 30 to 40 feet.

Local Distribution: Teluk Melano (01° 52.5'N, 109 ° 43'E)

References:Coppejan & Prud'homme van Reine (1989); Crane (1981); Dawson (1954); Egerod (1975); Gilbert (1947); Gilbert & Doty (1969); Taylor (1966); Teo & Wee (1983); Trono & GanzonFortes (1988); Tseng (1984).

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Avrainvillea sp.

Erect, flat flabellum, fan-shaped, margins not smooth, green-greyish in colour. Plant hold fIrmly to substratum with a long stipe.

Habitat: Attached to rocks.

Local Distribution:Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching Division. (02 ° 05'N, 109° 39'E)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Halimeda macroloba Decaisne

Plant live alone, reach up to 12 cm in height, ftesh green in colour when ftesh, creamy or greenish in colour upon drying, calcification medium, bulb-like holdfast, 4 - 5 cm in length. Lower part of the segment is compressed, square and subcuneate, arising ftom single surface, 2 or more branches that is isolated. As a whole the segment looks like fan, branching looks bigger and flat, compressed, 1 - 3 mm thick, usually it is flabellate but sometimes with four angles.

Habitat: Muddy substrate, 9.1 to 12.2 metres.

Local Distribution: Teluk Melano, Sematan, Kuching Division. (01° 52.5'N, 109 ° 43'E)

References:Durairatnam (1961); Gilbert (1947); Hillis (1959); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1988); Tseng (1984).

Economic Importance: Application: Fertilizer: agricultural fertilizer in leached acidic soils; Medicine: anthelmintic, antibacterial. Antifungal and antimicrobial.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Halimeda opuntia var minor (Linnaeus) Lamouroux (opuntia, name of a cactus)

Plants white to green, heavily calcified, growing as massive clumps, young plants with a single holdfast but holdfast later obscured by secondary attachments and random branching. The segments are three lobed, but not as pronounced as in H. incrassata: segments 3 - 10 mm wide. Basal cuneate segments ftom invisible stipe.

Habitat: Living together with coral reef, in intertidal sands.

Local Distribution:Siwa Shoals, Miri Division (04 ° 18'N, 113° 49'E)

 References: Fritsch (1935), Hillis (1959); Taylor (1960, 1972); Teo & Wee (1983).

Economic Importance: Application: Fertilizer: agricultural fertilizer in leached acidic soils; Medicine antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Halimeda simulans Howe

Thalli erect, up to 11 cm tall, excluding the bulbous holdfast which may extend to 5.5 cm long; bright green when fresh, greenish to cream when dried; basal portion may consist of one or three fused segments, all together forming a fan-shaped stipe &om which arise four to eight daughters segments; each supporting a series of segments that are moderately calcified with ribbed surfaces; segments vary in shape; cuneate to subcuneate, flabellate to reniform, upper margins undulate, sinuate to deeply lobed. This species inhabits shallow, intertidal areas, growing on sand or on muddy-sandy substrates associated with other seaweed and seagrass species.

Habitat: Attached on sand.

Local Distribution:Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching Division. (02° 05'N, 109° 39'E)

References:Hillis (1959); Taylor (1972); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1988)

Economic Importance: Application: Fertilizer; agricultural fertilizer in leached acidic soils; Medicine; antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Halimeda tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux (Halimeda, daughter of Halimedon, King of the sea)

Plants 6 - 12 cm tall, light yellowish green on drying, heavily calcified, aerial portion of dichotomous branches of undulating lobes; lobes oval, elliptical or kidney-shaped, 1.3 - 3 cm broad, 1 cm long; margin of lobes entire; basal lobes cuneate, forming stipe, branching in one plane only; holdfast conspicuous, 2 cm long, of creeping rhizoids holding sand particles together.

Habitat: Sandy substratum along rocky beach.

Local Distribution: Between Tg. Lubok Padok (02° 22.80'N, 113 °09.9'E) and Turtle Beach I (03° 23.58'N, 113° 10.29'E)

References: Durairatnam (1961); Fritsch (1935); Gilbert (1947); Hillis (1959); Jaasund (1976); Taylor (1960, 1967b, 1969, 1972); Teo & Wee (1983); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1988).

Economic Importance: Application: Animal feed; fertilizer: agricultural fertilizer in leached acidic soils, Medicine: anthelintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial.

[picture upon request]

 


FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Halimeda discoidea Decaisne

Plants 6 - 15 cm tall, branched; anchored by a dense cluster of rhizoids. Axis composed of flattened, smooth, orbicular or suborbicular segments, 1 - 3 cm in diameter. Segments lightly calcified and with entire margins. Branching is dwi-trichotomy.

Habitat: Attached on sand.

Local Distribution:Muara Tiong, Sungai Sibu, Salak, Kuching Division.

References: Dawson (1956); Gilbert (1947); Hillis (1959); Macgruder & Hunt (1979); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1988), Tseng (1984).

Economic Importance: Application: Animal feed:food source of the green turtle; Fertilizer: agricultural fertilizer in leached acidic soils; Medicine: anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal,  antimicrobial

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Halimeda sp.

Plants 6 cm tall, anchored with a small holdfast. Lightly calcified. Axis composed of flattened, smooth, orbicular or suborbicular segments, 0.5 cm to 1 cm in diameter.

Habitat: Living with coral reef community.

Local Distribution: Mike's Reef 04°15.384'N, 113°50.845'E)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Halimeda sp. 1

Plants 13 cm tall, anchored with 1.0 cm long holdfast. Axis composed of flattened, smooth, orbicular cuneate segments, 2.0 cm wide and 1.5 cm long.

Habitat: Attached to sand in riverine area.

Local Distribution: Muara Tiong, Sungai sibu, Kuching Division

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Halimeda sp. 2

Plant 9 cm high, basal portion flattened with 1 cm discoidal holdfast. Main branches dividing into three segments, segments cuneate or oblong in appearance.

Habitat: Attached to sand in riverine area.

Local Distribution:Muara Tiong, Sungai Sibu, Kuching Division.

 

 

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Udotea flabellum (Ellis et Solander) Lamouroux

The blade is firm and smooth, not obviously fIlamentous. Filaments of the blade produce a cortex of densely branched surface fIlaments, fIlaments have truncate of thickened end walls. Blades often proliferous from the face or margin.

Habitat:Attached to soft mud

Local Distribution: Turtle Beach I, Similajau, Bintulu Division (040 23.58'N, 113 °10.29'E)

References:Taylor (1960); Taylor & Humm(1961)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Udoteajavensis (Montagne) A. & E.S. Gepp (udus, damp)

Plant fan-shaped, green, small, 1.25 cm tall and 0.6 cm broad; margins irregular, stalk a single thread, 0.25mm thick; fIlaments dichotomously branched in one plane, constricted at varying distances above a fork, with no cross walls.

Habitat: Attached to sand.

Local Distribution: Pulau Satang Kecil, Santubong, Kuching Division (01 045' 30''N, 1100 09' 42"E)

References: Gavino C. Trono, Jr (1997)

Economic Importance Application: Medicine; antibacterial

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY UDOTEACEAE

Udotea sp.

Plant fan-shaped, green-yellowish when &esh but turning to mud-green when dried, 3.5 cm tall, 2.5 cm broad, margins irregular.

Habitat: Attached to soft mud.

Local Distribution:Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu Division (02 ° 24. 13'N, 113 °10.52'E)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY ULVACEAE

Enteromorpha intestina/is (Linnaeus) Nees (enteron, intestine; morpha, appearance; intestinum, intestine; a/is, pertaining to)

Thallus bright grass-green, tubular, convoluted, 0.6 - 3.0 mm wide and 5 - 11 cm long, attached becoming detached and &ee floating; simple proliferous branches &om the base; surface view of cells rectangular to polygonal, regularly and irregularly arranged.

Habitat: Attached to rocky substrate.

Local Distribution:Between Tg. Lubok Padok (020 22.8'N, 1130 09.9'E) and Turtle Beach 1(030 23.58'N, 113 0 1O.29'E)

Reference:Gavino C. Trono, JR. (1977)

Economic Importance: Application: Animal feed: fish bait, fish food, commercial products; fertilizer; human food; Medicine: antibiotic, anti bacteria, antifungal, antitubercular.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY ULVACEAE

Enteromorpha tubulosa Kutzing (tubulatus, tabular)

Plants 3 - 5 cm tall; thallus yellowish-green, gregarious, basal half terete and slender, widening out and flattening in upper half, irregular constrictions present or absent; cells in surface view rectangular to polygonal, in regular rows, in cross-section cells oveal, rounded.

Habitat:Attached to rocks.

Local distribution:Pantai Similajau, Bintulu Division.

Reference:Bergesen (1935); Joshi & Krishnamurthy (1972); Smith (1944).

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FAMILY VALONIACEAE

Valonia utricularis (Roth) C. Agardh

Plants form dark green mats often reaching 3 - 5 cm thick and of indefmite extent. Thalli are composed of filaments of multi nucleate cells approximately 1 mm in diameter. Filaments are somewhat stiff and turgid. Branching is irregular and proliferous. Branches are generally short and stubby.

Habitat: Attached to coral reef.

Local Distribution: Mike's Reef (04° 15.384'N, 113° 50.845'E)

References: Crane(1981); Egerod(1975); Pham(1909); Taylor(1967b, 1972)

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FAMILY DASYCLADACEAE

Neomeris annulata Dickie (neos, new; meris, division; annuls, a ring)

Plants small, gregarious; spindle-shaped with a slight curve, 0.8 - 1.8 cm tall, 1-3 rom broad, calcification heavy below, decreasing towards green apex.

Habitat: Attached to rocks.

Local Distribution:Tanjung Datu, Sematan, Kuching Division (03° 05'N, 109° 39'E)

Reference:Gavino C. Trono. JR (1997)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DASYCLADACEAE

Bornetella sp.

Plant club-shaped, 2-3.5 cm tall, bright dark green, metallic sheen on the surface.

Habitat: Attached to rocks.

Local Distribution: Tg. Datu, Sematan, Kuching Division. (03°05'N, 109°39'E)

[picture upon request]

 

 

 

 

THE MAJOR CLASSES OF SEAWEEDS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIVE SPECIES

CLASS PHAEOPHYCEAE (Brown Seaweed)

The brown algae have-plenty of xanthophyll pigments, especially fucoxanthin, which gives them their distinctive brown coloration. The other pigments present in their cells are chlorophylls a and c and carotenes. Their chloroplasts have thylakoids grouped into bands of three. Their cell wall is composed of cellulose and alginic acid as well as other polysaccharides. Laminarin and mannitol are the food reserve of this group.

Reproduction among the brown algae is both sexual and asexual. All motile reproductive cells are laterally biflagellated except in the members of Dictyotales where the male gametes are uniflagellated and the female gametes non-flagellated. An alternation of the gamete-producing phase (gametophytic generation) and spore-producing - phase (sporophytic generation) occurs in most members of this group except in the Fucales where there is no alternation of generation. Vegetative propagation through fragmentation of the thallus may also take place at the juvenile or adult stage. There are also the formation and abscission of special reproductive branches known as propagula.

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Dictyopteris delicatula Lamouroux

Plants erect and small. 2 - 8 cm tall with flat dichotomous to irregular branches; the branches 0.5 - 5.0 mm broad, with a pronounced midrib, apices rounded.

Habitat: Attached by a well-developed discoid holdfast to hard substrate.

Local Distribution:Turtle Beach II, Similajau, Bintulu Division.(03°24.13'N, 113° 10.52'E)

References: Allender & Kraft(1983); Chapman(1963); Durairatnam(1961); Feldmann(1951); Major(1977); Taylor(1960,1967b, 1972)

Economic Importance: Application: Human food; Medicine: antibacterial, antitumor.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Dictyota divaricata Lamouroux

Plants erect, often entangled, 3-7 cm high, with flat, dichotomous branches about 3mm broad in the lower portions; fronds narrowing abruptly to 0.1-0.2 mm in the upper portions; branches forming angles of90° and 1200 ; tips usually blunt or rounded. The presence of very narrow linear segments together with wider ones in the same thallus is characteristic of this species.

Habitat: Attached to coral/rocks.

Local Distribution: Samunsam, Sematan , Kuching Division

References: Taylor (1960); Earle (1969)

Economic Importance: Application: Animal feed, human food; Medicine: antibacterial

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) Lamouroux

Plants erect, medium size, plants 10 - 14 cm tall, yellowish brown in colour, attached with rhizoidal disc holdfast; dichotomously branched, forking angle 15° - 45 0, branching stipe, 3 - 6 mm wide, sometimes 1.5 - 2 mm and the widest is at the lowest part of the branching; apex obtuse or emarginate, proliferation ubiquitous basal.

Habitat: Attached to rocks on sandy substratum.

Local Distribution: Tanjung Datu (02°05'N, 109°39'E)

References: Chapman(1963); Durairatnam(1961); Lawson & John(1982); Taylor(1972); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes(1988); Tseng(1984)

Economic Importance: Application: Animal feed, human food: beer, dessert, ftozen food, fruit juices, ice cream, jellies, meat and flavor sauces, milk shakes, pastries and salad dressing. Industrial uses: emulsifiers, gelling agents, stabilizers, medicine: antibacteria, antifungal, antibiotic, anti metrazoI, antimicrobial, hemagglutination activity for rabbit and sheep erythrocytes, high LCAE (long chain aldehyde- forming enzyme) activity; lower blood pressure, oxidative metabolism inhibitor, with microbiological activity.

[picture upon request]

 

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Dictyota friabilis Setchell

Attached to mangrove roots or mud. Thallus forms entangled mass, creeping overlapping one another; attached by numerous rhizoids; thallus thin membraneous, decumbent, ftiable, 3 cm long or more, 3 to 6 mm broad; branching almost dichotomous, branches with obtuse, apices and undulate margins. This species is noted to occupy low light intensity habitats.

Habitat: Attached to mangrove roots.

Local Distribution: Tg. Batu, Salak

References: Gavino C. Trono, JR (1997)

Economic Importance; Application: Animal feed, human food, Medicine: Antibacterial

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Dictyota sp.

Plants erect, dark brown in colour, 6 cm high, 8 cm across, attached with small holdfast, dichotomous branching at the end branch, the other branchlets is longer than the other.

Habitat: Attached to rocks or coral reef

Local Distribution:Mike's Reef, Miri Division (02°15.384'N, 113° 50.845'E)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Dictyota mertensii (Martius)Kutzing

Thalli erect, bushy to 15 cm tall, greenish brown, attached by means of discoid holdfast; branching repeatedly alternate-dichotomous forming rounded axil; branches strap-shaped, 2.5-10 mm across, widest just below the forking, narrowest at the terminal portions; segments between the dichotomies decrease in length from base to the distal end of the thallus; apices of the terminal segments rounded to obtuse when young, dentate or aculeate when mature. Outer margins of the blades entire.

Habitat: Anchoring in sands.

Local Distribution: Tg. Datu, Sematan, Kuching Division. (02°0.5'N, 109°39'E)

References: Chapman (1963); Lawson & John (1982); Taylor (1972); Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1980, 1988)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Wormersley

Plants sheet.like, fan.shaped or reniform, flat dark brownish in colour with radius mark, prostrate sheets, attached wholly to rocky substrate with basal rhizoids, while erect sheets attached to basal, segment overlapping (on top of the other) and lobuse;
exceeding to 1 - 8 cm wide, 3 - 10 cm tall.

Habitat: Growing in sandy-muddy substrate. This species is found attached to rocks or dead corals in shallow areas exposed to weak Or strong CUlTent movement. Depth - 6.1 metres. Monotypic specIes.

Local Distribution: Pulau Satang Besar, Santubong, Kuching (01°47.00"N, 110°09.00"E)

References: Durairatnam (1961); Lawson & John (1982); Macgruder & Hunt (1979); Kapraun (1984); Taylor (1972); Trono & Ganzon.Portes (1988); Tseng (1984)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Padina australis Hauck

Thallus huge, wide flabellate, divided into few lobuse with fan.shaped structure, developing in dense cluster, 8 - 15 cm tall, yellowish green or orange-yellowish in colour when it is dried.

Habitat: Sandy substrate, depth - 3.1 metres.

Local Distribution: P. Satang Kecil (01°45.30N, 110°09.42 'E)

References: Allender & Kraft (1983); Lawson & John (1982); Macgruder & Hunt (1979); Trono & Ganzon.Portes (1980,1988); Tseng (1984)

Economic Importance: Application: Animal feed; anti salt-stress factor; fertilizer; human food; Medicine: antibacterial, antimicrobial

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Padina horyana Thivy

Thallus 4-7 em high, 1-5.5 em across, greenish and yellowish in colour, stupose base holding lamina that is looking like a fan. Frond lamina sometimes tearing, edge of ITond smooth.

Habitat: Found at floating cages system.

Local Distribution: Pulau Salak, Kuching Division. (010 40.5'N, 1100 17.5'E)

Reference: Crane (1981)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Padina minor Yamada

Thallus ITondose or flabellate, yellowish brown in colour when dried, 7 cm tall, divided into lobuse flabellate with 1 - 3 cm wide, thallus bottom divided into centralized zone with hairy lines (same length between one to another)

Habitat: Found in floating cage systems.

Local Distribution: Pulau Sempadi, Kuching Division. (010 44.5'N, 1100 05.5'E)

References: Trono & Ganzon-Fortes (1980, 1988), Tseng (1984)

Economic Importance: Applications: Animal feed; Fertilizer; Human food; Medicine: antibacterial.

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Padina sp.

Plant small, only 1.5 cm high, dark brown in colour. The surfaces of the blade are divided into same length, that is only 1 mm wide. Edge of the thallus is not smooth.

Habitat:Attached to coral/rocks.

Local Distribution:Batu Mandi, Similajau, Bintulu Division. (030 21.58'N, 1130 07.50'E)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Padina sp. 1

Plant small only 2 cm high, divided into 4 lobes. Edge of the thallus smooth with darker lines.

Habitat:Attached to rocks.

Local Distribution: Batu Mandi, Similajau, Bintulu Division. (030 21.58'N, 113 0 07.50'E)

[picture upon request]

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Padina sp. 2

Plant small only 3.5 cm, yellowish green in colour, edge ofthallus greenish in colour.

Habitat: Attach to floating cage culture systems.

Local Distribution: Pulau Salak, Kuching Division. (010 40.5'N, no 0 17.5'E)

 

 

 

FAMILY DICTYOTACEAE

Padina sp. 3

Thallus 4 cm high, 4 cm across, stupose base divided into 3 - 4 lamina looks like fan. The surface ofthe lower blade is 2 mm whereas the upper one is 1 mm in length.

Habitat: Attached to floating net cages.

Local Distribution: Pulau Salak, Kuching Division. (010 40.5'N, no 0 17.5'E)

 

 

 

Family Dictyotaceae

Padina sp. 4

Plant is only 5.5 cm high, olive green in colour, edge of the thallus smooth but teariI

Habitat: Attached to floating cage culture system.

Local Distribution: Pulau Salak, Salak, Kuching Division. (01 0 40.5'N, 1100 17.5'E)

 

 

 

Family Dictyotaceae

Padina tenuis Bory (tenuis, slender)

Thallus is a fan or kidney-shaped blade arising from a narrow type, brown in colo\J to 5.0 cm across the blade. The blade is distromatic throughout. The margin 0 blade is curled inward; blade may be tom from wave action. Sori occur above concentric rows of hair.

Habitat: Attached to floating cage culture systems.

Local Distribution: P. Tukong Ara (010 44.15'N, 1100 11.24'E) and P.Tukong

Reference:Banun Crane (1981)

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